essay on modern science and islam

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Essay on modern science and islam

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It highlights issues over how, what, when and who should communicate scientific knowledge. This essay will look at how scientists themselves think of science communication by looking at studies that have targeted scientists with the topic of communication. The author specifically wanted to assess the role of scientists in communicating to the public because research into this field mostly focused on public attitudes. The author describes that scientists have What is science?

Among the humanity, there are diverse of religions; some believe in Buddhism, some believe in Christian, some believe in Science , because science is proved with mathematical methods and repetitive experiments, unlike stories are told in the bible. I think learning science is necessary, and it is also important enough to make humankind to feel secure, change the way they think, and allow them to reach out more.

First, science is important because it allows us to understand our universe and our role in it. Some of the greatest minds in world history had advocated for the practice of science. After reading the Republic by Plato, I understand how crucial learning knowledge, science , is.

Plato employs prisoners as a metaphor for human being. The prisoners lived in an underground cave, while they had their necks and legs all tied up, fixed in the same spot, and they only see things that are in front of them. The examination will be conducted by the Federal Public Service Commission in accordance with the following Rules, subject to such changes as may be decided by the Government before finalizing appointments on the basis of this examination.

How were their lives different? Make sure you structure your essay properly so that it follows the below mentioned format. Introduction: You respond to the key words and phrases, define terms, set the parameters of your essay and introduce your stand. Body: This must be organizes into paragraphs in a logical sequence. You must present relevant detailed factual information and constantly link it back to the original question.

Discussion and analysis are an essential part of any essay. Footnotes and citations: All Science from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge"[1] is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. A practitioner of science is known as a scientist. Since classical antiquity, science as a type of knowledge has been closely linked to philosophy.

During the Islamic Golden Age, the foundation for the scientific method was laid, which emphasized experimental data and reproducibility of its results across multiple experiments. It is also often restricted to those branches of study that seek to explain the phenomena of the material universe. And over the course of the 19th century, the word " science " The pursuit of knowledge in this context is known as pure science , to distinguish it from applied science , which is the search for practical uses of scientific knowledge, and from technology, through which applications are realized.

For additional information, see separate articles on most of the sciences mentioned. Islam teaches that faith must come first and that it cannot be tailored to fit around secular lives. At the heart of the commitment it demands is the concept of…. Islam and Violence The modern world, in which the threat of terrorism is constant, has introduced many new beliefs, correct and false, into the collective conscience of the citizens of….

Islamic Reformism Change is the only thing permanent in this world. Based on said premise, religions such as Islam have been redefining its doctrines and practices over the years. Women and Islam The Western perception of Islam is of a religion that is especially restrictive of women. Christianity has had its own more restrictive policies toward women in the….

All Rights Reserved. Islam and Modern Science Islam is the world's fastest growing religion in the world and the second largest after Christianity. This is evident from the fact that out of mosques currently in the U. Despite the media's tainted presentation of Islam, the religious has consistently grown stronger. This can be largely due to the simple nature of Islamic teachings and the ease with which they can be practiced.

This brings us to the very essence of Islam i. Islam has repeatedly made it clear through Koran that practice is what makes a Muslim, a true believer in the eyes of God Allah. Many Muslims in the world today have inherited the faith from their parents but practice remains a very personal effort based on individual's level of commitment to the religion.

The five pillars of Islam were enforced to inculcate in Muslims a sense of dedication and to send the message of practice across. One can be a Muslim in name but Islam requires practice to consider a Muslim a true follower.

And to become a follower, they must accept and practice the five pillars of Islam. Download full paper NOW! When it comes to practice, Islam follows a very natural course. A child is never strictly told to perform certain rituals but his parents are expected to naturally get him interested in them through example. Children grow up knowing their parents practice some purification rituals, followed by prayers and they naturally imitate them.

No one cares if they stop in the middle and go off to play but as long as it is a common practice at home, parents know that children too will come around. Many would still sadly assume that like Jesus holds a place in divinity for Christianity, Prophet Mohammad peace be upon him does the same in Islam. But there can be nothing farther from the truth. Prophet Mohammad pbuh holds an important place as a messenger of Allah and there is absolutely no divinity bestowed on any of the prophets.

Allah repeatedly claims divinity entirely for Himself and Prophet Mohammad always made it clear that he was a messenger of God and must not be considered a son of God or heir to divinity in any sense of the word. This is what sets Islam apart from other religions. It is what makes it a truly monotheistic religion.

Islam did not begin in a. As some may believe. It had already been there since the times of Abraham but it came to stay in its present form in s when Koran was revealed to Prophet Mohammad. While most Muslims are as familiar with the history of their religion as they are of theirs but many people outside the religion have fairly vague idea of how Islam came into being and how it gained strength as a major world religion. Mohammad was born in Mecca in a. He grew up without a father because he had passed away months before his birth and his mother left the world six years later.

Mohammad's grandfather and his uncle largely took over the responsibility of raising him. A Christian monk who had once seen him instantly knew he was the chosen one. Mohammad grew up with strong character and sense of integrity and even before his Prophet-hood, he had gained immense trust of his people.


Another great polymath was al-Biruni died , who wrote treatises totaling 13, pages in virtually every scientific field. His major work, The Description of India , was an anthropological work on Hindus. Another of the most brilliant minds of the Golden Age was the physicist and geometrician Alhazen also known as Ibn al-Haytham; died Although his greatest legacy is in optics — he showed the flaws in the theory of extramission, which held that our eyes emit energy that makes it possible for us to see — he also did work in astronomy, mathematics, and engineering.

The 20, pages he wrote over his lifetime included works in philosophy, medicine, biology, physics, and astronomy. What prompted scientific scholarship to flourish where and when it did? What were the conditions that incubated these important Arabic-speaking scientific thinkers? There is, of course, no single explanation for the development of Arabic science, no single ruler who inaugurated it, no single culture that fueled it.

As historian David C. Scientific activity was reaching a peak when Islam was the dominant civilization in the world. So one important factor in the rise of the scholarly culture of the Golden Age was its material backdrop, provided by the rise of a powerful and prosperous empire.

Newly opened routes connecting India and the Eastern Mediterranean spurred an explosion of wealth through trade, as well as an agricultural revolution. For the first time since the reign of Alexander the Great, the vast region was united politically and economically. The result was, first, an Arab kingdom under the Umayyad caliphs ruling in Damascus from to and then an Islamic empire under the Abbasid caliphs ruling in Baghdad from to , which saw the most intellectually productive age in Arab history.

The rise of the first centralized Islamic state under the Abbasids profoundly shaped life in the Islamic world, transforming it from a tribal culture with little literacy to a dynamic empire. To be sure, the vast empire was theologically and ethnically diverse; but the removal of political barriers that previously divided the region meant that scholars from different religious and ethnic backgrounds could travel and interact with each other.

Linguistic barriers, too, were decreasingly an issue as Arabic became the common idiom of all scholars across the vast realm. The spread of empire brought urbanization, commerce, and wealth that helped spur intellectual collaboration. Several large metropolises — including Baghdad, Basra, Wasit, and Kufa — were unified under the Abbasids; they shared a single spoken language and brisk trade via a network of caravan roads.

Baghdad in particular, the Abbasid capital, was home to palaces, mosques, joint-stock companies, banks, schools, and hospitals; by the tenth century, it was the largest city in the world. As the Abbasid empire grew, it also expanded eastward, bringing it into contact with the ancient Egyptian, Greek, Indian, Chinese, and Persian civilizations, the fruits of which it readily enjoyed.

In this era, Muslims found little of interest in the West, and for good reason. One of the most important discoveries by Muslims was paper, which was probably invented in China around a. The effect of paper on the scholarly culture of Arabic society was enormous: it made the reproduction of books cheap and efficient, and it encouraged scholarship, correspondence, poetry, recordkeeping, and banking.

Medieval Muslims took religious scholarship very seriously, and some scientists in the region grew up studying it. Avicenna, for example, is said to have known the entire Koran by heart before he arrived at Baghdad.

Might it be fair, then, to say that Islam itself encouraged scientific enterprise? This question provokes wildly divergent answers. But the single most significant reason that Arabic science thrived was the absorption and assimilation of the Greek heritage — a development fueled by the translation movement in Abbasid Baghdad.

For this reason, even if it is said that the Golden Age of Arabic science encompasses a large region, as a historical event it especially demands an explanation of the success of Abbasid Baghdad. This allowed for a relatively cosmopolitan society in which all Muslims could participate in cultural and political life.

Their empire lasted until , when the Mongols sacked Baghdad and executed the last Abbasid caliph along with a large part of the Abbasid population. During the years that the Abbasid empire thrived, it deeply influenced politics and society from Tunisia to India. The Greek-Arabic translation movement in Abbasid Baghdad, like other scholarly efforts elsewhere in the Islamic world, was centered less in educational institutions than in the households of great patrons seeking social prestige.

But Baghdad was distinctive: its philosophical and scientific activity enjoyed a high level of cultural support. There seem to have been three salient factors inspiring the translation movement. First, the Abbasids found scientific Greek texts immensely useful for a sort of technological progress — solving common problems to make daily life easier.

The Abbasids did not bother translating works in subjects such as poetry, history, or drama, which they regarded as useless or inferior. Indeed, science under Islam, although in part an extension of Greek science, was much less theoretical than that of the ancients. Translated works in mathematics, for example, were eventually used for engineering and irrigation, as well as in calculation for intricate inheritance laws.

And translating Greek works on medicine had obvious practical use. Astrology was another Greek subject adapted for use in Baghdad: the Abbasids turned to it for proof that the caliphate was the divinely ordained successor to the ancient Mesopotamian empires — although such claims were sometimes eyed warily, because the idea that celestial information can predict the future clashed with Islamic teaching that only God has such knowledge.

There were also practical religious reasons to study Greek science. Mosque timekeepers found it useful to study astronomy and trigonometry to determine the direction to Mecca qibla , the times for prayer, and the beginning of Ramadan. For example, the Arabic astronomer Ibn al-Shatir died also served as a religious official, a timekeeper muwaqqit , for the Great Mosque of Damascus. The second factor central to the rise of the translation movement was that Greek thought had already been diffused in the region, slowly and over a long period, before the Abbasids and indeed before the advent of Islam.

By the time of the Arab conquests, the Greek tongue was known throughout the vast region, and it was the administrative language of Syria and Egypt. After the arrival of Christianity, Greek thought was spread further by missionary activity, especially by Nestorian Christians. Centuries later, well into the rule of the Abbasids in Baghdad, many of these Nestorians — some of them Arabs and Arabized Persians who eventually converted to Islam — contributed technical skill for the Greek-Arabic translation movement, and even filled many translation-oriented administrative posts in the Abbasid government.

While practical utility and the influence of Hellenism help explain why science could develop, both were true of most of the Arabic world during the Golden Age and so cannot account for the Abbasid translation movement in particular. As Gutas argues, the distinguishing factor that led to that movement was the attempt by the Abbasid rulers to legitimize their rule by co-opting Persian culture, which at the time deeply revered Greek thought. The Baghdad region in which the Abbasids established themselves included a major Persian population, which played an instrumental role in the revolution that ended the previous dynasty; thus, the Abbasids made many symbolic and political gestures to ingratiate themselves with the Persians.

In an effort to enfold this constituency into a reliable ruling base, the Abbasids incorporated Zoroastrianism and the imperial ideology of the defunct Persian Sasanian Empire, more than a century gone, into their political platform. This incorporation of Sasanian ideology led to the translation of Greek texts into Arabic because doing so was seen as recovering not just Greek, but Persian knowledge.

By translating ancient Greek texts into Arabic, Persian wisdom could be recovered. This began to change during the reign of al-Mamun died , the seventh Abbasid caliph. For the purposes of opposing the Byzantine Empire, al-Mamun reoriented the translation movement as a means to recovering Greek, rather than Persian, learning. In the eyes of Abbasid Muslims of this era, the ancient Greeks did not have a pristine reputation — they were not Muslims, after all — but at least they were not tainted with Christianity.

The fact that the hated Christian Byzantines did not embrace the ancient Greeks, though, led the Abbasids to warm to them. One Arab philosopher, al-Kindi died , even devised a genealogy that presented Yunan, the ancestor of the ancient Greeks, as the brother of Qahtan, the ancestor of the Arabs. Until its collapse in the Mongol invasion of , the Abbasid caliphate was the greatest power in the Islamic world and oversaw the most intellectually productive movement in Arab history. The Abbasids read, commented on, translated, and preserved Greek and Persian works that may have been otherwise lost.

By making Greek thought accessible, they also formed the foundation of the Arabic Golden Age. Major works of philosophy and science far from Baghdad — in Spain, Egypt, and Central Asia — were influenced by Greek-Arabic translations, both during and after the Abbasids. Indeed, even if it is a matter of conjecture to what extent the rise of science in the West depended on Arabic science, there is no question that the West benefited from both the preservation of Greek works and from original Arabic scholarship that commented on them.

As the Middle Ages progressed, Arabic civilization began to run out of steam. After the twelfth century, Europe had more significant scientific scholars than the Arabic world, as Harvard historian George Sarton noted in his Introduction to the History of Science After the fourteenth century, the Arab world saw very few innovations in fields that it had previously dominated, such as optics and medicine; henceforth, its innovations were for the most part not in the realm of metaphysics or science, but were more narrowly practical inventions like vaccines.

Lewis notes in What Went Wrong? Those who had been disciples now became teachers; those who had been masters became pupils, often reluctant and resentful pupils. What happened? To repeat an important point, scientific decline is hardly peculiar to Arabic-Islamic civilization. Such decline is the norm of history; only in the West did something very different happen. Still, it may be possible to discern some specific causes of decline — and attempting to do so can deepen our understanding of Arabic-Islamic civilization and its tensions with modernity.

Just as there is no simple explanation for the success of Arabic science, there is no simple explanation for its gradual — not sudden, as al-Afghani claims — demise. The most significant factor was physical and geopolitical. As early as the tenth or eleventh century, the Abbasid empire began to factionalize and fragment due to increased provincial autonomy and frequent uprisings.

By , the little that was left of the Abbasid state was swept away by the Mongol invasion. To understand this anti-rationalist movement, we once again turn our gaze back to the time of the Abbasid caliph al-Mamun. Al-Mamun picked up the pro-science torch lit by the second caliph, al-Mansur, and ran with it.

But the caliphs who followed al-Mamun upheld the doctrine with less fervor, and within a few decades, adherence to it became a punishable offense. The beginning of the de-Hellenization of Arabic high culture was underway. As Maimonides described it in The Guide for the Perplexed , this view sees natural things that appear to be permanent as merely following habit. This amounts to a denial of the coherence and comprehensibility of the natural world. In his book The Incoherence of the Philosophers , al-Ghazali vigorously attacked philosophy and philosophers — both the Greek philosophers themselves and their followers in the Muslim world such as al-Farabi and Avicenna.

Al-Ghazali was worried that when people become favorably influenced by philosophical arguments, they will also come to trust the philosophers on matters of religion, thus making Muslims less pious. Sunnis embraced al-Ghazali as the winner of the debate with the Hellenistic rationalists, and opposition to philosophy gradually ossified, even to the extent that independent inquiry became a tainted enterprise, sometimes to the point of criminality.

In the Sunni world, philosophy turned into mysticism. But the fact is, Arab contributions to science became increasingly sporadic as the anti-rationalism sank in. Its most extreme form can be seen in some sects of Islamists. Such inferences sound crazy to Western ears, but given their frequency in the Muslim world, they must sound at least a little less crazy to Muslims.

As Robert R. A similar ossification occurred in the realm of law. The first four centuries of Islam saw vigorous discussion and flexibility regarding legal issues; this was the tradition of ijtihad , or independent judgment and critical thinking. New readings of Islamic revelation became a crime. All that was left to do was to submit to the instructions of religious authorities; to understand morality, one needed only to read legal decrees. Thinkers who resisted the closing came to be seen as nefarious dissidents.

Christianity acknowledges a private-public distinction and theoretically, at least allows adherents the liberty to decide much about their social and political lives. Islam, on the other hand, denies any private-public distinction and includes laws regulating the most minute details of private life. Put another way, Islam does not acknowledge any difference between religious and political ends: it is a religion that specifies political rules for the community. Such differences between the two faiths can be traced to the differences between their prophets.

Because Islam was born outside of the Roman Empire, it was never subordinate to politics. As Bernard Lewis puts it, Mohammed was his own Constantine. This means that, for Islam, religion and politics were interdependent from the beginning; Islam needs a state to enforce its laws, and the state needs a basis in Islam to be legitimate. Some clues can be found by comparing institutions in the medieval period. Far from accepting anything close to the occasionalism and legal positivism of the Sunnis, European scholars argued explicitly that when the Bible contradicts the natural world, the holy book should not be taken literally.

Influential philosophers like Augustine held that knowledge and reason precede Christianity; he approached the subject of scientific inquiry with cautious encouragement, exhorting Christians to use the classical sciences as a handmaiden of Christian thought.

Indeed, as David C. As the late Ernest L. As a Christian, he could simply assume philosophy without becoming publicly involved in any argument for or against it. After about the middle of the thirteenth century in the Latin West, we know of no instance of persecution of anyone who advocated philosophy as an aid in interpreting revelation.

The success of the West is a topic that could fill — indeed, has filled — many large books. But some general comparisons are helpful in understanding why Islam was so institutionally different from the West. Huff makes a persuasive argument for why modern science emerged in the West and not in Islamic or Chinese civilization:.

The rise of modern science is the result of the development of a civilizationally based culture that was uniquely humanistic in the sense that it tolerated, indeed, protected and promoted those heretical and innovative ideas that ran counter to accepted religious and theological teaching.

Conversely, one might say that critical elements of the scientific worldview were surreptitiously encoded in the religious and legal presuppositions of the European West. In other words, Islamic civilization did not have a culture hospitable to the advancement of science, while medieval Europe did. The contrast is most obvious in the realm of formal education. As Huff argues, the lack of a scientific curriculum in medieval madrassas reflects a deeper absence of a capacity or willingness to build legally autonomous institutions.

Madrassas were established under the law of waqf , or pious endowments, which meant they were legally obligated to follow the religious commitments of their founders. Islamic law did not recognize any corporate groups or entities, and so prevented any hope of recognizing institutions such as universities within which scholarly norms could develop.

Medieval China, too, had no independent institutions dedicated to learning; all were dependent on the official bureaucracy and the state. Legally autonomous institutions were utterly absent in the Islamic world until the late nineteenth century. Addeddate Identifier islamandmodernscience Identifier-ark. Islam is today the religion of more than million Muslims or Moslems or Mohammedans , occupying a wide belt stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, across Africa, parts of Europe, and Asia..

Presenting an authentic discourse on the Islamic understanding of the physical cosmos, Muzaffar Iqbal explores God's relationship to the created world and the historical and cultural forces. In a very distinctive story told by the holy Quran about the prophet Solomon and a group of ants, Quran stated that ants can speak to each others Contribution of Islam to the world's civilization. Islam and science essay in urdu Islam today is facing challenges from within and from the wider world.

We are humbler today than, for example, Ibn Rushd Averroes was. One enduring mystery of modern science is why it developed where and when it did. Islam and scienceThe road to renewal. Gellner on modernity and Islam. Science is the backbone of our society.

Islam is today the religion of more than million Muslims or Moslems or Mohammedans , occupying a wide belt stretching from the. The historical currents that gave birth to modern science were diverse and complex. Ernest Gellner's definition of modernity stressed two elements: a mode of cognition science and a mode of production industrialism.

So the modern world cannot go even for a day without science. Critics argue to the contrary and cite historical research, all of which indicates that the Quran drew on the proto-scientific ideas circulating in the world during, and often from well. Science gave us so much in our present time. Islam and the Discoveries of Modern Science. The history of Islam in modern times is essentially the history of the Western impact on Muslim societies.

Let us remember our great and glorious heritage by briefly surveying what Islam has already contributed to the world's civilization, education, culture and to scientific development. Get the huge list of more than Essay Topics and Ideas. Islam is the world's fastest growing religion in the world and the second largest after Christianity.

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