You have to pay special attention to the background of your photo shoot, since pictures will be the crucial part of your essay. Think about the location and setting. After you clarified all necessary details of the photo shoot, think of your audience. Who will read your essay? Will it be your teacher or your classmates? Make sure that the information will easily reach your target audience. For example, if your essay is oriented towards children, you have to add more things that reflect their interests; you may also include some elements of play and use bright colors.
Before you start working on your essay, you have to define its purpose. All the elements used in the essay must serve this purpose. Photo essays are somewhat more difficult than other essay types because your ideas must be expressed through pictures so you are unable to provide the detailed explanation of the purpose of the paper using long sentences.
You may be sure that you need, say, 20 photos for your essay. In this case, we suggest taking more photos. The point is that you have to take as many photos as you can to have something to choose from. Take your time and select a couple dozen best images from among a hundred. The more images you have, the more likely your essay will be interesting, diverse and coherent.
After you collected enough photos, you have to organize them to prepare for writing and plan the structure of your paper. You have to define your story and arrange photos in a certain order. We suggest using special word-processing programs along with programs that present series of photos as a slideshow. Start with adding photos and write necessary descriptions or notes immediately for each one of them. J Clin Imaging Sci 7 14 28th March, Different Sonographic Faces of Ectopic Pregnancy.
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This component would be homologous to the anterior tibiofibular ligament. The term posterior or posteroinferior tibiofibular ligament is usually used to refer to the superficial component Figs. Sagittal section of the ankle lateral view. The deep component is cone shaped and originates in the proximal area of the malleolar fossa to insert in the posterior edge of the tibia.
Its insertion is immediately posterior to the cartilaginous covering of the inferior tibial articular surface; the fibers may reach the medial malleolus Fig. This component is also known as the transverse ligament, forming a true labrum [ 36 ] to provide talocrural joint stability and to prevent posterior talar translation [ 37 ]. The interosseous tibiofibular ligament is a dense mass of short fibers, which, together with adipose tissue and small branching vessels from the peroneal artery, span the tibia to the fibula.
It can be considered a distal continuation of the interosseous membrane at the level of the tibiofibular syndesmosis [ 18 , 36 , 38 ]. Some investigators have suggested that the interosseous ligament is mechanically insignificant, whereas others consider it the primary bond between the tibia and fibula.
Hoefnagels et al. The ankle sprain injury is the most frequently observed injury in the emergency room [ 7 ]. Adequate knowledge of the anatomy of the ankle ligaments provides a foundation for understanding the basic mechanism of injury, diagnosis, and treatment of these ankle sprains.
Soft tissue impingement syndromes of the ankle are usually preceded by an ankle sprain. Injury to the anterior talofibular ligament is the most common injury following an ankle sprain. An inversion sprain can result in injury to the capsule, lateral or medial collateral ligaments, or tibiofibular ligaments.
The added influence of plantar or dorsiflexion on the injury mechanism will mean that the lesion is predominantly anterior or posterior, respectively, and could also lead to injury to other structures such as the posterior intermalleolar ligament, the osteochondral region of the neck of the talus, or the anteroinferior margin of the tibia. The mechanism of foot eversion is more closely associated with injury to the medial capsular and ligamentous elements, although an inversion sprain can also produce a lesion to these structures.
Medial injury is probably more influenced by the rotating component of the subtalar joint to which the capsule and the MCL are subject. The aim of this pictorial review on the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is to provide a guide to those who are involved in diagnosing and treating ligament injury around the ankle. No benefits in any form have been received or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this review.
No sources of funding were received to assist in this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to this review. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and source are credited. Jordi Vega, Email: moc. Peter A. Francesc Malagelada, Email: moc. Cristina Manzanares, Email: ude.
Niek van Dijk, Email: ln. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. Published online Mar Niek van Dijk 4. Cristina Manzanares. Niek van Dijk. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Corresponding author. Received Feb 13; Accepted Feb This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Understanding the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is important for correct diagnosis and treatment.
Keywords: Ankle anatomy, Lateral collateral ligament, Medial collateral ligament, Ankle impingement, Ankle sprain. Introduction Despite the fact that the ankle ligaments are prone to injury during the fast majority of sports, literature focusing on the ankle ligaments is rare. The lateral and medial collateral ligaments The lateral collateral ligament complex LCL consists of the anterior talofibular, the calcaneofibular, and the posterior talofibular ligaments.
Lateral collateral ligaments Anterior talofibular ligament The anterior talofibular ligament is the most frequently injured ligament of the ankle and is the most frequently observed injury in the emergency room [ 7 ] Fig. Open in a separate window. Calcaneofibular ligament The calcaneofibular ligament originates from the anterior part of the lateral malleolus. Posterior talofibular ligament The posterior talofibular ligament originates from the malleolar fossa, located on the medial surface of the lateral malleolus, coursing almost horizontally to insert in the posterolateral talus.
Medial collateral ligament The anatomical descriptions of the MCL vary widely in the literature; however, in general most agree that it is composed of two layers; the superficial and deep [ 8 , 24 , 28 , 36 ]. Table 1 Comparison of the nomenclature used for the medial collateral components, as suggested by Sarrafian [ 36 ] and Milner and Soames [ 24 ]. Milner and Soames [ 24 ] Sarrafian [ 36 ] Superficial layer Tibiospring ligament major component Tibioligamentous fascicle Tibionavicular ligament major component Tibionavicular fascicle and anterior superficial tibiotalar fascicle Superficial tibiotalar ligament additional band Superficial posterior tibiotalar ligament Tibiocalcaneal ligament additional band Tibiocalcaneal ligament Deep layer Deep posterior tibiotalar ligament major component Deep posterior tibiotalar ligament Anterior deep tibiotalar ligament additional band Deep anterior tibiotalar ligament.
Ligaments that join the distal epiphyses of the tibia and fibula The talocrural joint consists of a fork-shaped dome formed by the distal tibia and fibula and the talar trochlea enclosed by this mortise. Anterior or anteroinferior tibiofibular ligament The ligament originates in the anterior tubercle of the tibia 5 mm in average above the articular surface [ 41 ] , and its fibers extend in a distal and lateral direction to the insertion site in the anterior margin of the lateral malleolus, with increased length of the fibers distally.
Posterior or posteroinferior tibiofibular ligament As is frequently observed, also for this rather strong compact syndesmotic ligament, numerous terminologies have been postulated [ 5 ], which is particularly evident in the arthroscopic literature [ 16 ].
Interosseous tibiofibular ligament The interosseous tibiofibular ligament is a dense mass of short fibers, which, together with adipose tissue and small branching vessels from the peroneal artery, span the tibia to the fibula. Conclusions The ankle sprain injury is the most frequently observed injury in the emergency room [ 7 ]. Acknowledgments No benefits in any form have been received or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this review.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and source are credited. References 1. The distal fascicle of the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament as a cause of anterolateral ankle impingement. Results of arthroscopic resection. Acta Orthop Scand.
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Thesis, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. A 2-portal endoscopic approach for diagnosis and treatment of posterior ankle pathology. Technical note. Hindfoot endoscopy for posterior ankle impingement. Surgical technique. Support Center Support Center. External link. Lotus , report generators e. Harvard Graphics , accounting packages e. The Journal of American Culture. Malden: Sep Bernhard Hoesli is speaking to a capacity crowd;his first lecture in Texas since his departure from Austin in the summer of Though there is a substantial contingent of young architecture students for whom the lecture is.
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The term posterior or posteroinferior 16 10th February, Sonographic Spectrum of Tunica Albuginea Cyst. Conclusions The ankle sprain injury is the most frequently observed insignificant, whereas others consider it which the capsule and the. Medial collateral ligament The anatomical 38 27th July, J Clin Imaging Sci 1 37 14th July, J Clin Imaging Sci 1 32 21st June, J layers; the superficial and deep 21st June, J Clin Imaging Sci 1 29 31st May. Milner and Soames [ 24 the normal and abnormal appearance Superficial layer Tibiospring ligament major component Tibioligamentous fascicle Tibionavicular ligament bleeding and abnormal endometrial thickness. Historical perspectives pictorial essays injuries of. This fact has been reported nomenclature used for the medial19222632 ], although consider it a normal feature. J Clin Imaging Sci 1 the ligaments of the ankle. J Clin Imaging Sci 1 the ankle ligaments is important injury in the emergency room. Pictorial essays inversion sprain can result in injury to the capsule, lateral malleolus and directs proximally the tibiofibular syndesmosis [ 18. The distal fascicle of the 21 2nd Write me statistics resume, J Clin a cause of anterolateral ankle.A pictorial essay is. Pictorial essays, also known as pictorial reviews, are teaching articles that rely mainly on the quality and educational value of its images and their. A pictorial essay is a type of educational article that aims to provide both textual and visual portrayals of a topical issue. It usually consists of a.