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According to the Keynesian school of thought, stimulus spending is worth it and provides a net gain because once the economy has turned around the government can well afford to pay off the debt, as its coffers will be filling up with more tax receipts after the lawnmower is up and running.

You could think of Congress cutting the budget during a recession as the equivalent of the Federal Reserve constricting cash at the wrong time, as they did in Believers in stimulus spending are putting weight on the idea that stimulus money jump-starts the economy, creating job growth that outweighs the down payment spent on the stimulus package. In a Fireside Chat, FDR said that most New Deal recovery was in the private sector, as intended, but that public spending had triggered private growth.

If the liberal spending approach seems spurious, remember that its conservative skeptics argue the same thing regarding the benefits of tax cuts. The Congressional Budget Office CBO is currently biased toward the liberal view because it takes spending multipliers into account, but not tax cut multipliers.

In either case, supporters of the package and many mainstream economists think the stimulus helped stave off a worsening recession and unemployment in the short run. For conservative economists, Keynesian spending is not worth it. The Austrian economist argued against wealth re-distribution most famously in The Road to Serfdom For Hayek and American conservatives like Milton Friedman , stimulus spending is counter-productive hogwash, though Friedman endorsed the tax-cut version of stimuli.

But Friedman thought the government at least had a role via the Federal Reserve. His theory of increasing the money supply during recessions meant not only that the Fed should ensure that more money is in circulation — which they famously failed to do in the early s because of their concern with staying on the gold standard — but also that consumers and companies should have a greater supply of money in hand by virtue of lower taxes.

As mentioned, conservative economists believe that tax cuts can even counter-intuitively increase government revenue because they stimulate the economy so much through the multiplier effect that more total tax money flows to the government even if the rates are lower. The Tax Act , for instance, will seemingly increase the debt according to the CBO, but proponents hope that tax cuts will generate enough economic growth to offset the revenue lost through tax cuts.

Also, while presidents take the lead in suggesting tax policy, Congress sets the rates tax bills originate in the House and are approved by the Senate. Between and , George W. Grab A Shovel FDR threw in with Keynes, just as Democrats and Republicans alike did in when the pressure was on and the economy was verging on collapse.

With the economy on the verge of collapse in , George W. To do so we should either have had to make a capital levy [tax] that would have been confiscatory, or we should have had to set our face against human suffering with callous indifference…we accepted the final responsibility of government, after all else had failed, to spend money when no one else had money left to spend. The New Deal provided some direct relief, but mostly it focused on creating jobs through a cavalcade of government-sponsored programs that put people to work.

These programs were known by a variety of acronyms, sometimes called alphabet soup, but their gist was the same: if there are no jobs, the government by God should make one up. There is always work to be done in the form of construction, road building, clearing trails through national forests, fighting forest fires, etc. Not everyone grabbed an actual shovel; they even paid artists to paint murals Public Works of Art Project , historians to interview 23 surviving ex-slaves WPA Slave Narrative Collection , and photographers to document the times e.

Most hirees were laborers, though. A perfect example was the San Antonio River Walk. But most of it was built with WPA money. Austin tapped New Deal funds to expand on an existing dam and sidewalks to build Barton Springs Pool. Sometimes, crews used hand tools instead of power to ensure that the work would remain steady. Nationwide, other crews built tunnels, bridges, airports, fire towers, waterfronts, post offices, city halls, playgrounds, fairgrounds, zoos, parks, fountains, museums, community centers, swimming pools, gyms, and sports stadiums around the country.

The Civil Works Administration put four million to work in the winter of , mainly on construction projects. CCC workers planted an astonishing three billion trees and transitioned easily into the military after Pearl Harbor in because they were used to the work, regimentation, and low pay.

Some of its workers were WWI veterans. As chronicled by historian Douglas Brinkley in Rightful Heritage , Franklin Roosevelt is underrated in comparison to his cousin Teddy when it comes to conservation. Both the right and left were skeptical of such agencies. Right-wing CCC critics likened it to Soviet-style socialism. According to legend, some people were paid to chase around tumbleweed on windy days.

A struggling shoe salesman named Jack Reagan took a job as a federal relief administrator in Dixon, Illinois. His son, Ronald, later opposed such government intervention as president in the s, but he maintained his appreciation for the WPA.

The TVA built a series of hydro dams on the Tennessee River that, aside from employing many people and controlling flooding, brought power to the region, helping it to industrialize and create more jobs map.

Still around today, the TVA also damaged the environment and displaced people whose property was flooded. Yet, the public utility was another positive example of a multiplier effect. Today, much of the American auto industry has migrated from Detroit to the Tennessee Valley because of its cheap electrical rates. One alt-country band, the Drive-By Truckers , has two songs about the TVA, one positive and one critical, symbolizing the conflicted feelings Southerners still feel for the organization.

The TVA led to the Rural Electrification Act that aimed to juice other un-electrified regions and erect telephone lines. Many REA-funded rural electrical co-ops are still in existence today and are adopting wind and solar energy for farmers.

In the Northwest, New Dealers built a similar series of hydroelectric dams along the Columbia River , helping to irrigate and power an otherwise arid region in central and eastern Washington and Oregon. While salmon could climb ladders alongside smaller dams e.

Emblematic of the New Deal, the dam was strong on job growth and weak on civil rights and environmentalism. Moreover, seventy workers died being impaled on rebar, drowned in the Columbia, or torn up in conveyor belts. Today, there are nine more dams on the Columbia and Grand Coulee alone provides enough clean energy to power Seattle. The LCRA was an example of state-sponsored New Deal-type legislation, as opposed to that coming from the national bureaucracy.

Austin got a lot of federal dollars, too, as 10th District Congressman Lyndon Johnson steered funds toward municipal projects. Leftists saw Roosevelt as a Wall Street lackey missing an opportunity for a real socialist revolution. Like any president, Roosevelt had his critics on both sides. If he disliked socialism so much, why did he favor government taking over the banks? Coughlin called on his viewers to form a new Christian Front party to support Nazism before radio stations cancelled him.

FDR refused to endorse him and tried to convince him to drop out of the race. When that failed, despite the inconvenience of his paralysis, he boarded a train for the West Coast to campaign on behalf of Republican gubernatorial candidate Frank Merriam. That act alone says a lot about where FDR actually stood on the political spectrum.

Sinclair lost the three-horse race to Merriam and another centrist candidate. FDR disliked the idea, thinking it verged on communism, but it was the basis for the Social Security system that he reluctantly went along with in A key difference is that under Social Security each worker funds the system directly as they go with paycheck deductions.

In Revolutionary America, populist Herman Husband suggested a similar idea, but he was so far ahead of his time that he had no influence on what happened years later,. His Share Our Wealth program diverted oil company profits to building roads, bridges, charity hospitals, and schools in that mostly impoverished state. Long understood that it all had to do with how you frame your message. He never went so far as to use the words socialism or communism , which would have torpedoed Share Our Wealth in an instant.

He simply asked the poor majorities if they thought the time had come to redistribute some oil wealth, couching his policies in Christian themes. Teamsters Strike, Minneapolis, Those were strong words coming from a guy like FDR. The Von Rosenvelts were old money aristocracy dating back to the original 17th-century Dutch settlers in the Hudson River Valley. The Second New Deal featured more lasting measures than the First, including Social Security, the right to collective bargaining for unions, minimum wage, and federal housing assistance.

On the flipside, Roosevelt won over working-class America, forging the Democrats a solid nationwide coalition. At first, it provided a modest retirement pension and short-term unemployment insurance. Politicians and activists have used Christianity on both sides of nearly every major debate in American history and this was no exception.

When the Depression hit, the U. A few states had meager systems and, as we saw above, Dr. Townsend envisioned such a system in California. Faced with the monumental task of tracking workers, early Social Security denied benefits to itinerant workers, servants, seaman, etc. The only way to avoid that extrapolating current trends, which is never entirely accurate would be for workers to accept a 2.

Even the full benefits were originally intended as a supplement rather than something retirees could solely survive on. Moreover, the act was passed when workers retired at 65 and life expectancy was around 67 life expectancy at birth in was 58 for men, 62 for women, SSA. With people living longer now the eligibility age will have to be raised.

A bipartisan act passed in kicked in a gradual increase from age 65 to 67 so that people born after will get full benefits at Otherwise, Americans will pay increasingly more interest on the debt red on the chart below , burdening future generations. Crow Indians used to encourage but not force their elderly to commit suicide. Happily, Americans on average are living longer. Unhappily, the current entitlement system struggles to keep up with costs at current tax rates, especially on the healthcare portion of Social Security added in America, Western Europe, and Japan have all made bigger commitments to their retirees than they can handle without moderate adjustments, faster-growing young populations, increased immigration, or explosive economic growth.

The default Part A provides hospital insurance while the extra Part B provides general health insurance. With more and better treatments being offered and no price controls on providers hospitals, doctors, pharmaceuticals , costs have far outrun the general inflation rate over the last generation. Inflation will continue to be a problem in healthcare regardless of whether costs are covered by the government, private insurance, or out-of-pocket. Medic aid , mostly state-funded aid for the poor, faces similar challenges.

Under current law, Americans and their employers each contribute up to 7. The chart above shows the breakdown in federal spending as of The red and blue portions represent entitlements, including regular Social Security and Medicare, respectively. Technically, defense is one of twelve departments included under discretionary , though some charts list defense as a separate category. Discretionary spending is appropriated annually and includes other agencies, foreign aid, PBS-NPR, and research on science, medicine, and weather.

I earned it! Do you feel that not entitled to the benefits? Collective bargaining meant that management was legally obligated to sit down and negotiate with unions rather than simply firing, harassing, or in rare cases killing strikers. A simpler way to understand collective bargaining would be to say that management lost the right to not bargain or negotiate. Blue-collar workers now had negotiating leverage and could make a decent living working in factories and mines, building on improvements in hours, pay, safety, and working conditions that began in the s.

CIO leader John L. Lewis convinced U. The Republic strike led to the Memorial Day Massacre of in which Chicago police killed ten unarmed demonstrators and injured dozens of others. Eventually, though, the right of collective bargaining took effect. Republic Steel workers, for instance, got their first bargained agreement five years after the fracas.

The union heyday lasted for fifty years or so before companies started outsourcing work to cheaper labor overseas or automating repetitive work. Good semi-skilled manufacturing jobs are still available for those with a slightly higher level of training than was called for in the s. Supporters wanted to protect the dignity of each worker and make it possible to support families, but critics claimed it raised unemployment because companies could afford fewer workers and laid some off.

Mortgage foreclosures were significant during the Great Depression, with nearly half of mortgage holders in default or late on payments. Note: These rates are difficult to measure precisely today and were even more difficult to assess in the s. Going into the s, the ratio of renters to owners was The government thought Americans would feel a greater stake in their country and capitalism as owners than renters, so it intervened in the economy to encourage buying.

The New Deal government also refinanced distressed mortgages to tamp down the huge number losing their homes. When Fannie Mae was completely public, from , the U. At the time, qualified borrower meant, among other things, white.

Redlined districts with no minority or Jewish homeowners received preferential lower rates while minorities got subprime mortgages higher interest rates , regardless of their credit history. Few people realize that before the government built housing projects in ghettos in the s, they built a few segregated suburbs in the s. The early FHA essentially enshrined racism and segregation as public policy.

In , the racist criteria were dropped, but politicians of both parties continued to support homeownership up through the real estate bubble of the early 21st century. Easy loans encouraged mostly by Democrats looking out for the poor, combined with Wall Street deregulation encouraged by Republicans and Democrats, created a bubble in mortgage-backed securities that exposed the entire economy to systemic risk.

Was the New Deal Constitutional? Popularity and constitutionality are different animals altogether. The New Deal was popular among a critical mass. FDR won four elections, and won by a historic landslide in , just after the more radical Second New Deal kicked in. They even shot down state laws governing wages, working conditions, etc. More so than any era in American history, the people, Congress, and executive branch were at odds with the judicial branch in the s. He hoped to encourage retirements by restoring the full pension.

New Deal opponent Willis Van Devanter retired in , while conservative swing-voter Owen Roberts changed his mind even before the court-packing scheme on some issues. The Court okayed minimum wage, collective bargaining, and Social Security, and reverted to its broad Commerce Clause interpretation. The Supreme Court mostly backed away from economic cases altogether until the s, allowing New Deal liberalism to flourish for the next half-century and Social Security beyond that.

It was a play on an old sewing phrase a stitch in time saves nine , meaning to mend a tear before it gets larger. Since his court-packing bill died, FDR claimed he lost the battle but won the war, saving the New Deal. But it was a costly, or pyrrhic , victory for Roosevelt, exhausting his political capital. Both the executive and judicial branches seemed to learn a lesson from the controversy. Donald Trump then filled the opening with Neil Gorsuch his first month in office.

McConnell realized that the process was, in effect, an honor system and that he could game it once in the short term and get away with: the GOP stole a court appointment in But long-term, unless Democrats all develop simultaneous amnesia, there will be payback of some sort; the question is what. And combining partisan obstructionism with court-packing would be a dysfunctional circus.

Congress can change the number of judges but would need an amendment to enact term-limits, so the wiser of the two reforms faces a higher hurdle. With the economy improving by the time of his reelection, he pulled the plug on most public works projects to balance the budget e.

For supporters of Keynesian economics, the pullback in spending corresponding with the recession proves the value of stimulus spending. In other words, Roosevelt pulled the plug too soon, not keeping the foot on the Keynesian pedal long enough. It was also the first year that payrolls deducted taxes for Social Security, but S. For conservative supply-siders, the Roosevelt Recession of shows that lack of cash among spenders supply caused by these taxes led to the downturn, with the capital needed for further recovery either taxed away or forced into hiding.

FDR, conversely, blamed the recession on the reduction in federal spending and authorized more stimuli. Complicating matters even more, in the Fed doubled bank reserve requirements funds banks keep as vault cash, or on deposit at the Fed , lowering the cash in circulation even more beyond the tax hike.

All we know for certain is that the simultaneous contractionary policies of spending cuts, a tax increase, and tight money put a bump in the road to recovery. Ideally, countries should run small surpluses in good economic times so that they have room to maneuver during recessions. Animated Graph. The combination of the recession and court-packing scheme hurt Roosevelt. Many Democrats jumped ship and the Republicans swept the midterm elections.

Assessment Was the New Deal effective? Yes and no. Herbert Hoover scrambled to find answers but was overwhelmed. But New Dealers at least turned the economic tide through constant tinkering and occasional bold, innovative action.

The New Deal also brought electricity and phones to rural America while displacing some with floods for dam reservoirs. Business leaders value stability almost more than right-wing policy and the New Deal was juggling a lot of balls simultaneously — too many moving parts for reliable short-term planning.

Things gradually improved some after , including the most important metric of hunger. Nothing should be attached to it without considering the effect on the whole. To unify the house to its site, Wright often used large expanses of glass to blur the boundary between the indoors and outdoors. In , Wright wrote an essay on glass in which he compared it to the mirrors of nature: lakes, rivers and ponds. By using this large amount of glass, Wright sought to achieve a balance between the lightness and airiness of the glass and the solid, hard walls.

Arguably, Wright's best-known art glass is that of the Prairie style. The simple geometric shapes that yield to very ornate and intricate windows represent some of the most integral ornamentation of his career. Wright also designed some of his own clothing. His fashion sense was unique and he usually wore expensive suits, flowing neckties, and capes. He had a fascination with automobiles, purchasing his first car in , a Stoddard-Dayton roadster, and owned many exotic vehicles over the years.

During the cash-strapped Depression, Wright drove cheaper vehicles. He owned some 50 cars between and his death, of which 10 are known to survive. Wright strongly believed in individualism and did not affiliate with the American Institute of Architects during his career, going so far as to call the organization "a harbor of refuge for the incompetent," and "a form of refined gangsterism". When an associate referred to him as "an old amateur" Wright confirmed, "I am the oldest.

He also routinely claimed the work of architects and architectural designers who were his employees as his own designs, and also claimed that the rest of the Prairie School architects were merely his followers, imitators, and subordinates. In his earlier days, Wright worked with some of the top architects of the Chicago School , including Sullivan. The Czech-born architect Antonin Raymond , recognized as the father of modern architecture in Japan, worked for Wright at Taliesin and led the construction of the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo.

He subsequently stayed in Japan and opened his own practice. Rudolf Schindler also worked for Wright on the Imperial Hotel. His own work is often credited as influencing Wright's Usonian houses. Schindler's friend Richard Neutra also worked briefly for Wright and became an internationally successful architect. Later, in the Taliesin days, Wright employed many architects and artists who later become notable, such as Aaron Green , John Lautner , E. Frank Lloyd Wright was interested in site and community planning throughout his career.

His commissions and theories on urban design began as early as and continued until his death. He had 41 commissions on the scale of community planning or urban design. His thoughts on suburban design started in with a proposed subdivision layout for Charles E. Roberts entitled the "Quadruple Block Plan". This design strayed from traditional suburban lot layouts and set houses on small square blocks of four equal-sized lots surrounded on all sides by roads instead of straight rows of houses on parallel streets.

The houses, which used the same design as published in "A Home in a Prairie Town" from the Ladies' Home Journal , were set toward the center of the block to maximize the yard space and included private space in the center. This also allowed for far more interesting views from each house.

Although this plan was never realized, Wright published the design in the Wasmuth Portfolio in The more ambitious designs of entire communities were exemplified by his entry into the City Club of Chicago Land Development Competition in The contest was for the development of a suburban quarter section. This design expanded on the Quadruple Block Plan and included several social levels. The design shows the placement of the upscale homes in the most desirable areas and the blue collar homes and apartments separated by parks and common spaces.

The design also included all the amenities of a small city: schools, museums, markets, etc. The philosophy behind his community planning was decentralization. The new development must be away from the cities. In this decentralized America, all services and facilities could coexist "factories side by side with farm and home". Though most famous as an architect, Wright was an active dealer in Japanese art, primarily ukiyo-e woodblock prints.

He frequently served as both architect and art dealer to the same clients; he designed a home, then provided the art to fill it. Wright was also an avid collector of Japanese prints and used them as teaching aids with his apprentices in what were called "print parties". Wright first traveled to Japan in , where he bought hundreds of prints.

The following year, he helped organize the world's first retrospective exhibition of works by Hiroshige , held at the Art Institute of Chicago. In , however, rival art dealers began to spread rumors that Wright was selling retouched prints. This circumstance, combined with Wright's tendency to live beyond his means and other factors , led to great financial troubles for the architect. Though he provided his clients with genuine prints as replacements for those he was accused of retouching, it marked the end of the high point of his career as an art dealer.

The Bank of Wisconsin claimed his Taliesin home the following year and sold thousands of his prints for only one dollar a piece to collector Edward Burr Van Vleck. Wright continued to collect and deal in prints until his death in , using prints as collateral for loans, often relying upon his art business to remain financially solvent. The extent of his dealings in Japanese art went largely unknown, or underestimated, among art historians for decades. In Julia Meech, then associate curator of Japanese art at the Metropolitan Museum, began researching the history of the museum's collection of Japanese prints.

She discovered "a three-inch-deep 'clump of cards' from , each listing a print bought from the same seller—'F. Wright'" and a number of letters exchanged between Wright and the museum's first curator of Far Eastern Art, Sigisbert C. Bosch Reitz. On April 4, , Wright was hospitalized for abdominal pains and was operated on April 6.

He seemed to be recovering, but he died quietly on April 9. Although Olgivanna had taken no legal steps to move Wright's remains and against the wishes of other family members, as well as the Wisconsin legislature, in , Wright's remains were removed from his grave by members of the Taliesin Fellowship, cremated, and sent to Scottsdale, where they were later interred in the memorial garden.

The original grave site in Wisconsin, now empty, is still marked with Wright's name. These collections included more than 23, architectural drawings, some 44, photographs, manuscripts, and more than , pieces of office and personal correspondence. It also contained about 40 large-scale architectural models, most of which were constructed for MoMA's retrospective of Wright in Wright's furniture and art collection remains with the foundation, which will also have a role in monitoring the archive.

These three parties established an advisory group to oversee exhibitions, symposiums, events, and publications. Photographs and other archival materials are held by the Ryerson and Burnham Libraries at the Art Institute of Chicago. The architect's personal archives are located at Taliesin West in Scottsdale, Arizona.

The Frank Lloyd Wright archives include photographs of his drawings, indexed correspondence beginning in the s and continuing through Wright's life, and other ephemera. Wright's correspondence is indexed in An Index to the Taliesin Correspondence , ed.

Wright designed over built structures [] of which about survive as of [update]. At least five have been lost to forces of nature: the waterfront house for W. Notable Wright buildings intentionally demolished: Midway Gardens built , demolished , the Larkin Administration Building built , demolished , the Francis Apartments and Francisco Terrace Apartments Chicago, built , demolished and , respectively , the Geneva Inn Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, built , demolished , and the Banff National Park Pavilion built , demolished Later in his life and after his death in , Wright was accorded much honorary recognition for his lifetime achievements.

That medal was a symbolic "burying the hatchet" between Wright and the AIA. When they gave me the gold medal in Houston, I told them frankly why. Feeling that the architecture profession is all that's the matter with architecture, why should I join them? Brown Medal in In , Fallingwater was named "The Building of the 20th century" in an unscientific "Top-Ten" poll taken by members attending the AIA annual convention in Philadelphia.

Pei , Louis Kahn , Philip Johnson , and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe ; he was the only architect who had more than one building on the list. The other three buildings were the Guggenheim Museum, the Frederick C. Robie House, and the Johnson Wax Building. The work has since received numerous revivals, including a June revival at Fallingwater, in Bull Run, Pennsylvania, by Opera Theater of Pittsburgh.

Art Garfunkel has stated that the origin of the song came from his request that Simon write a song about the famous architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Simon himself stated that he knew nothing about Wright, but proceeded to write the song anyway. In , Arizona made plans to construct a new capitol building.

Believing that the submitted plans for the new capitol were tombs to the past, Frank Lloyd Wright offered Oasis as an alternative to the people of Arizona. The city of Scottsdale, Arizona renamed a portion of Bell Road , a major east—west thoroughfare in the Phoenix metropolitan area , in honor of Frank Lloyd Wright.

UNESCO stated that these buildings were "innovative solutions to the needs for housing, worship, work or leisure" and "had a strong impact on the development of modern architecture in Europe". Frank Lloyd Wright was married three times, fathering four sons and three daughters. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

American architect. Richland Center, Wisconsin , U. Phoenix, Arizona , U. Catherine Tobin. Miriam Noel. Fallingwater Kentuck Knob Solomon R. Main article: Usonia. Main article: List of Frank Lloyd Wright works. The Robie House on the University of Chicago campus Taliesin West panorama, Scottsdale, Arizona Biography portal Architecture portal. Business Week. The McGraw-Hill Companies. Archived from the original on March 2, Retrieved January 22, Encyclopedia of the City. ISBN Frank Lloyd Wright: A Life.

The Music of William C. Wright: Solo Piano and Vocal Works, — Permelia Records , ". Journal of the Society for American Music. ISSN S2CID Frank Lloyd Wright: A Biography. University of Chicago Press. Architecture and Geometry in the Age of the Baroque.

University of Wisconsin-Madison. Frank Lloyd Wright: An Autobiography. Petaluma, CA: Pomegranate Communications. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation. Retrieved May 16, Frank Lloyd Wright's Chicago. San Diego: Thunder Bay Press. Mineola, N. Architectural Research Quarterly. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Retrieved March 16, Zarine Weil ed. San Francisco: Pomegranate. Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith. Allen Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Retrieved May 25, October 21, Artnet Magazine. Retrieved May 24, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The New Yorker. Retrieved March 26, Frank Lloyd Wright Field Guide. Running Press. Thomas House". Retrieved May 31, The architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright : a complete catalog Updated 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

The Cornell Daily Sun. London, Routledge Publ. Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks ed. Princeton University Press. Retrieved May 7, Library of Congress. Retrieved February 28, Architecture of the sun : Los Angeles modernism, — New York: Rizzoli. July 1, Archived from the original on December 28, Retrieved October 16, BBC News. September 22, Retrieved September 3, October Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians.

JSTOR The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, Howe, Architect , University of Minnesota Press, New York: Harper Perennial, , p. Frank Lloyd Wright's Taliesin Fellowship. The Independent. Retrieved December 6, May 7, Canada: A Wiley-Interscience. November 10, Archived from the original PDF on March 3, October 31, Retrieved July 16, The Architectural Record , 64 July , 10— Frank Lloyd Wright's glass designs.

San Francisco: Pomegranate Artbooks. Old Time Radio. Retrieved September 9, March 1, American Quarterly. New York: Abrams, April 10, Retrieved May 12, Archived from the original on February 20, November 28, April 2, May 9, Da Capo Press. Arizona Library.

Arizona Capitol Museum. Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved November 27, July 7, Retrieved July 7, Archived from the original on June 10, Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 28, The Arizona Republic. Frank Lloyd Wright. Commons Wikinews Wikiquote. Authority control. CiNii Japan. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

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All of his SS guards were never to be SS agents just for their own sake. The good of the nation meant the good of the leader and that was what mattered most in that symbiotic relationship. The capitalist and expansionist highlighted in the first part of the book similarly, the author will say, just wanted to make money or expand for its own sake, its own cause.

Leaders of totalitarian states are not necessarily ideologically driven, but often want authoritarian power for its own sake and are using the people only as useful idiots in order to enhance what they think of as their ultimate good. It is vital that we study history. Otherwise we can be doomed to repeat it.

This book gives a recursive view of history since it is a look back at a history as seen by a very intelligent writer in about a history that immediately came before that time period, and the reader gets both a history of the time period and a snapshot of what was believed in Our understanding of history takes many drafts with rewrites before we think we get it right or at least good enough to think we did, and this book represented one of the best of the early drafts.

Oct 04, James Murphy rated it it was amazing. I suppose I've always known of this book. I chose to read it 67 years after its publication because I thought it would give me some insight into the politics of our present. I was right. Arendt's main focus is, of course, the regimes of Nazi Germany and the Stalinist Soviet Union, both established in the s.

The Origins of Totalitarianism was published before the advent of Maoism in China, but I feel she would've understood its totalitarian nature in the same lights, and just as well. This is I suppose I've always known of this book. This is such a wise book.

It's so scholarly and comprehensive in its discussion of the phenomenon. Perhaps I'm wrong to feel this, but I'm amazed that she could so well understand the social and political processes she writes about, because, to be honest, I was expecting good history but read, I think, an uncommonly masterful treatment of the subject.

Arendt's book would seem to still be the final word on the topic, 67 years after publication. I can only imagine its breathtaking impact in , so close on the Nazi era and still during the lifetime of Stalin and his ironclad practices in the Soviet Union she so adroitly analyzes. Both acted as the petri dishes for Arendt's comprehensive examination. Arendt sees totalitarian systems as radical evils, as "corpse factories and holes of oblivion" where subjects of such complete state control are thought superfluous.

Hers is a vision of death which the masses approve and acquiesce in, even if it's their own. Her studies of antisemitism and imperialism in the first 2 parts of the book act as seed causes for her main topic, totalitarianism, and her warmup to it. Those are the deep historical currents whose flow helped create the riptides of the totalitarian movements making up the main thrust of her book. What did I learn about my time?

Well, America is a long way from totalitarianism, even as scary as the news can be sometimes. Though it does exist in the world today, the glow of totalitarianism anywhere in the west is a very dim glow, barely registering. Still, beginning on p she writes about the characteristics of mass leaders, those who're able to devise such total systems, and one can recognize the impulse in some who figure in our news cycle. To read her explanation for the motivations behind detention camps is to recognize, not least of all, Guantanamo and the Japanese internment of WWII--we isolate people for the same reasons totalitarian regimes did.

I finished the book realizing that to read it is to be frightened for all mankind, because if such political excesses were always possible and did happen, it's still possible today. That we can see the dim glow of parallels today is to remind us we need to be paying attention. Jun 24, Ana rated it it was amazing Shelves: absolute , economy , history , law-abiding-citizen , of-life-and-death , about-murders , geopolitics-security , philosophy , somehow-societal , racism.

It has taken me 9 months to finish this book. I am glad it took me so long because reading this should absolutely under no circumstance be an effort of racing your own self on its pages. This is a difficult book, both in its choice of subject and in its writing. In it, history, politics, economy, psychology and many other themes are discussed and analyzed, in order to attempt a description of the two main totalitarian regimes of Europe in the 20th Century, Nazism and communism.

It is peppered wi It has taken me 9 months to finish this book. It is peppered with both facts and speculations not the bad kind, though. Arendt both respects and dissects the perpetrators and the victims. She manages to be both objectively far away and subjectively close enough to never lose sight of the fact that this is a history book about horror and hell.

I very simply enjoyed each page of this book, even when it was tedious: her tone is never condescending, her knowledge never dropped from a place higher than you, her sentences flow logically and are written clearly In terms of literary critique, I have no feeling but admiration for Hannah Arendt as an author, as I do in personal terms for her as a woman, as a human being.

I personally aspire to be even half as eloquent as her, and hope to be even a quarter as capable of deep, meaningful analysis in my life. This work will take time to read, it will take energy and it will take a lot of patience to truly understand what it is laying out in front of you. However, I can safely say that, up to this point in my historical readings on the subject, this is by far the best one out there.

Feb 02, Dylan Suher rated it it was amazing. Her views on Anti-Semitism are mostly what my grandfather would have called "German Jewish thinking" and whenever she writes about America or Africa, it's frankly embarrassing.

But when she's talking about European pre-war politics, she's absolutely on point. She has great insight into the basic human impulses at the heart of the great evils of the 20th century, insights which I found useful even when thinking about the Tea Party Movement. I found myself nostalgic a blessedly rare mode for me Her views on Anti-Semitism are mostly what my grandfather would have called "German Jewish thinking" and whenever she writes about America or Africa, it's frankly embarrassing.

I found myself nostalgic a blessedly rare mode for me for the days when Arendt was a notable public intellectual: this book is written clearly and mostly free of jargon, but still strongly argued and well researched. Today, by contrast, we have Thomas Friedman. It also helps that she's a remarkable writer. The portions on statelessness, life in the camps and human loneliness are as about as moving as political thought gets.

Dec 22, Conor Ahern rated it really liked it Shelves: audiobook , author-female , history , non-fiction , russian , holocaust , wwii. So I think it's pretty obvious why I read this, and pretty obvious why I had my first queue for a book older than a few years old: people are freaked, they are nervous, they want answers and our other institutions have utterly failed us, forget preparing us for any of what we should be expecting.

Arendt spends a lot of time tracing the origins of anti-Semitism, which seems appropriate except that she doesn't spill too much ink connecting that to the rise of Nazism. Overall this book was a bit too So I think it's pretty obvious why I read this, and pretty obvious why I had my first queue for a book older than a few years old: people are freaked, they are nervous, they want answers and our other institutions have utterly failed us, forget preparing us for any of what we should be expecting.

Overall this book was a bit too long and a bit too academic to really grip me, but there were eerie parallels to our present situation that would grab my attention: On today's complaisant GOP: The attraction which the totalitarian movements exert on the elite, so long as and wherever they have not seized power, has been perplexing because the patently vulgar and arbitrary, positive doctrines of totalitarianism are more conspicuous to the outsider and mere observer than the general mood which pervades the pretotalitarian atmosphere.

These doctrines were so much at variance with generally accepted intellectual, cultural, and moral standards that one could conclude that only an inherent fundamental shortcoming of character in the intellectual. What the spokesmen of humanism and liberalism usually overlook, in their bitter disappointment and their unfamiliarity with the more general experiences of the time is that an atmosphere in which all traditional values and propositions had evaporated.

Vulgarity with its cynical dismissal of respected standards and accepted theories carried with it a frank admission of the worst and a disregard for all pretenses which were easily mistaken for courage and a new style of life. What a temptation to flaunt extreme attitudes in the hypocritical twilight of double moral standards, to wear publicly the mask of cruelty if everybody was patently inconsiderate and pretended to be gentle.

Nothing proved easier to destroy than the privacy and private morality of people who thought of nothing but safeguarding their private lives. This kind of mass terror, which still operated on a comparatively small scale, increased steadily because neither the police nor the courts seriously prosecuted political offenders on the so-called Right. It was valuable as what a Nazi publicist has aptly called 'power propaganda': it made clear to the population at large that the power of the Nazis was greater than that of the authorities and that it was safer to be a member of a Nazi paramilitary organization than a loyal Republican.

This impression was greatly strengthened by the specific use the Nazis made of their political crimes. They always admitted them publicly, never apologized for 'excesses of the lower ranks'—such apologies were used only by Nazi sympathizers—and impressed the population as being very different from the 'idle talkers' of other parties. The similarities between this kind of terror and plain gangsterism are too obvious to be pointed out.

The Nazis did not hesitate to use, at the end of the war, the concentrated force of their still intact organization to bring about as complete a destruction of Germany as possible, in order to make true their prediction that the German people would be ruined in case of defeat. The propaganda effect of infallibility, the striking success of posing as a mere interpreting agent of predictable forces, has encouraged in totalitarian dictators the habit of announcing their political intentions in the form of prophecy.

The most famous example is Hitler's announcement to the German Reichstag in January, 'I want today once again to make a prophecy: In case the Jewish financiers As soon as the execution of the victims has been carried out, the 'prophecy' becomes a retrospective alibi: nothing happened but what had already been predicted This method, like other totalitarian propaganda methods, is foolproof only after the movements have seized power.

Then all debate about the truth or falsity of a totalitarian dictator's prediction is as weird as arguing with a potential murderer about whether his future victim is dead or alive—since by killing the person in question the murderer can promptly provide proof of the correctness of his statement. The only valid argument under such conditions is promptly to rescue the person whose death is predicted. Before mass leaders seize the power to fit reality to their lies, their propaganda is marked by its extreme contempt for facts as such, for in their opinion fact depends entirely on the power of man who can fabricate it In other words, the method of infallible prediction, more than any other totalitarian propaganda device, betrays its ultimate goal of world conquest, since only in a world completely under his control could the totalitarian ruler possibly realize all his lies and make true all his prophecies.

As Primo Levi and others have pointed out, these things rely on manipulable people and incremental deterioration of societal norms. Are we not experiencing that to degrees seldom seen before? Having read this book I feel fairly certain that the evil genius and psychological understanding of men like Stalin and Hitler is beyond the capacity of a lummox like Trump, but I take such little solace in this because I do believe that he is surrounding himself with the amoral semi-deep-thinkers who are fully capable of wielding extreme power see, e.

I need a hug. And a beer. View 2 comments. Mar 28, Jana Light rated it it was amazing Shelves: thinking. Another book I feel somewhat impotent to review, this time because it is almost too powerful and too real. So many of Arendt's observations and analyses ring true to what I see today that I found myself tearing up multiple times and this is not supposed to be an emotional book!

Her careful, detailed account of how two violently totalitarian regimes were able to come to power and flourish for a bit in the 20th century is valuable for those who do not want to be doomed to repeat history, and th Another book I feel somewhat impotent to review, this time because it is almost too powerful and too real. Her careful, detailed account of how two violently totalitarian regimes were able to come to power and flourish for a bit in the 20th century is valuable for those who do not want to be doomed to repeat history, and that, coupled with the quality of her research, analyses, and writing, gives this book an unshakable place on my "required reading for all" list.

I keep coming back to Arendt's descriptions of the mental states required for an acceptance of totalitarianism, at all levels of power. It is certainly what concerns me most about our own time, with consequences Arendt makes horrifyingly clear. If I had a criticism about the book, it is that when comparing the inhumanity of the Holocaust with the inhumanity of slavery, Arendt seemed somewhat dismissive about the horrors of slavery.

However, I have to mention that I tend to assume qualitative overtones in analyses that are only trying to clarify quantitative differences, so perhaps my criticism has more to do with how I read than what Arendt said. A second reading will help me decide on my own. Seriously, read this book.

It is insightful, powerful, tragic, and incredibly relevant, and I have a feeling it will continue to be relevant for many years to come. Sep 21, Jay Green rated it really liked it. It's been at least two decades since I read Arendt's book three separate volumes in my edition: Antisemitism, Imperialism, and Totalitarianism.

A remarkable work, the principal take-away of which, relying on my memory, is that it was the statelessness of Jews that made the Holocaust possible: once denied of citizenship or nationality, they had no one to protect them. It's an argument repeated and tested in Timothy Snyder's Black Earth and would help to explain the enthusiasm for the project It's been at least two decades since I read Arendt's book three separate volumes in my edition: Antisemitism, Imperialism, and Totalitarianism.

It's an argument repeated and tested in Timothy Snyder's Black Earth and would help to explain the enthusiasm for the project of constructing Israel. More pertinently, it has lessons and ramifications for today, when ethnic groups are being denied citizenship or national status, as in the case of Myanmar, with ethnic cleansing becoming an increasingly preferred option for reactionary governments, and of course, for Palestine too.

Dec 13, Chris Chapman rated it it was amazing Shelves: los-nadies-los-ninguneados , kakanien , zz-yr , banality-of-evil. Those whom the persecutor had singled out as scum of the earth—Jews, Trotskyites, etc. The official SS newspaper, th The official SS newspaper, the Schwarze Korps, stated explicitly in that if the world was not yet convinced that the Jews were the scum of the earth, it soon would be when unidentifiable beggars, without nationality, without money, and without passports crossed their frontiers.

Reading Arendt should be compulsory in all schools now. Hitler understood that human rights only make sense if everyone has them. By excluding Jews from human rights, he could bring the whole edifice crashing down, and he was able to do that because the weak League of Nations system made states the unique guarantors of human rights. Your rights depended on your citizenship and if that was removed, you had no rights. Trump, Orban, Lars Lokke Rasmussen and the rest want to achieve the same thing, by excluding Muslims and refugees, and in theory, the UN, the EU, the European Court of Human Rights, representing a consensus of governments who insist on inalienable human rights, should stand in their way.

In theory I feel we are sleep-walking our way into the abyss. Jul 09, Ari rated it liked it. I had mixed feelings here. I learned things from the book -- it has a number of insights that strike me as interesting and important -- but I'm worried I also learned a lot that isn't true. Disclaimer: I skipped through most of the first two parts "Anti-semitism" and "Imperialism" , to get to the part I was really interested in, "Totalitarianism".

I had expected this to be a work of analytic history, chronicling the rise and operation of the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. It is not. This is prim I had mixed feelings here. This is primarily a theoretical work, with long discussions about the place of Man in Society, backed by historical references chosen to be illustrative.

Arendt claims that the totalitarian states Germany and the USSR were fundamentally alike in some ways, and moreover that they had deep fundamental differences with all previous tyrannies. She bases this claim partly on an analysis of how the regimes operated, but mostly on a close reading of the statements made by their leadership.

However, she does not claim that these sources come from any sort of organized sampling. Rather, Arendt is picking the quotes that support her view. This means Arendt can cherry pick with impunity and that the reader should be on guard against her making sweeping generalizations that aren't really true. In some cases, she makes claims that seem plainly wrong.

She claims that totalitarianism can only operate in a very large state, such as Russia or Germany at its peak expansion. This seems to have been falsified by the examples of Saddam's Iraq, revolutionary Iran, and above all, North Korea. And that fact that this testable prediction of hers turned out to be wrong makes me wonder if there's a lot else the matter with her analysis. Dec 29, Corey rated it it was amazing Shelves: philosophy , , history , politics.

It's been both a challenge and a delight to read, and in light of this election cycle, disturbingly apropos. Some reviewers recommend skipping the two sections on antisemitism and imperialism. Heed them not. Skipping the tough bits is for wimps, and you'll be thankful for the foundation when you get to those final chapters. Feb 06, Eleven rated it did not like it.

This is so incredibly boring. Maybe anything with this many footnotes is supposed to be but I can't continue punishing myself with it. I did skim to the end and, spoiler alert, Hitler loses. View all 9 comments. Jun 03, Booze Hound rated it it was ok Shelves: partially-read. Apparently I am too stupid to understand Totalitarianism, especially this bore fest. Which is scary considering I probably wouldn't have a clue if I was living in a Totalitarian system or not I want a burger.

And pizza. Burger pizza? Anyways, I started reading the first few chapters and could not believe how mind numbingly boring and academic it is. I would much rather live under a Totalitarian regime than having to read another chapter of this. That's how bored I am! Give me the Gul Apparently I am too stupid to understand Totalitarianism, especially this bore fest. Give me the Gulag, please! For the love of God!

I jumped to juicier sounding parts like "The Masses", "Total Domination" and other chapters that sound like heavy metal bands originating in I thought these chapters would yield something reminiscent of great classics such as , Brave New World, or The True Believer I really liked other Arendt stuff that is why I am so patient with it so far , but I am thinking of starting a totalitarian book burning movement due to my lack of enthusiasm for this book.

I will continue to jump around, but nothing seems to strike my interest. I think she is too intellectual for me and feel this book could be reduced to two sentences: Totalitarian is shitty and Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia consisted of a bunch of dickheads.

America is the best and freedom is awesome! That would have done it for me. I would have gotten the point. I will keep you posted on "Totalitarianism" and its so called "origins" as if this stuff is as easy to predict by reading a shitty book God, I would rather be subjected to totalitarian propaganda than go on anymore!!

OK, ok, you get the point. My metaphors, similes, or whatever they are called are growing redundant and so is this review I will continue to read it for the good of the people You're welcome, America. Quotes: p. The result was the majority of their membership consisted people who never before had appeared on the political scene.

What was new in the writings of the front generation was their high literary standard and great depth of passion. Nor was Himmler, the most powerful man in Germany after , one of those "armed bohemians" whose features were distressingly similar to those of the intellectual elite. Himmler was himself "more normal," that is, more of a philistine, than any of the original leaders of the Nazi movement. He was not a bohemian like Goebbels, or a sex criminal like Streicher, or a crackpot like Rosenberg, or a fanatic like Hitler, or an adventurer like Goring.

He proved his supreme ability for organizing the masses into total domination by assuming that most people are neither bohemians, fanatics, adventurers, sex maniacs, crackpots, nor socials failures, but first and foremost job holders and good family men. However, totalitarian ideologies did not invent this propaganda, and were not the only ones to use it.

Scientifically, of mass propaganda has indeed been so universally employed in modern politics that it has been interpreted as a more general sign of that obsession with science which has characterized the Western world since the rise of mathematics and physics in the sixteenth century; thus totalitarianism appears to be only the last stage in a process during which "science has become an idol that will magically cure the evils of existence and transform the nature of man.

And there was, indeed , an early connection between scientifically and the rise of the masses. The "collectivism" of masses was welcomed by those who hoped for the appearance of "natural laws of historical development" which would eliminate the unpredictability of the individual's actions and behavior. There has been cited the example of Enfantin who could already "see the time approaching when 'art of moving the masses' will be so perfectly developed that the painter, the musician, and the poet will possess the power to please and to move with the same certainty as the mathematician solves a geometrical problem or the chemist analyses any substance,' and it has been concluded that modern propaganda was born then and there.

Mar 24, David rated it it was amazing Shelves: history , cultural-analysis , tyranny. This seemed like an uplifting book to read during the time of coronavirus social distancing Okay, maybe not. But its a pretty fantastic book. Not fantastic like "wow, this was an invigorating page-turner that I couldn't put down and loved so much," but fantastic like, "wow, this is incredibly thorough and dense and I'm not sure I can keep reading because the details are wearing on my eyes and mind yet I know I must press on.

Right now, I struggled. Maybe its other books on my shelf pulling at me or maybe I don't know. I know this one has been on my shelf for a while and I really wanted to read it. Yet I found the first two sections Antisemitism and Imperialism kind of a drag.

But it all came together near the end of the second section Imperialism and throughout the third section Totalitarianism. All the ground work Arendt laid, all the seemingly mundane details and stories she told in the beginning came together as she talked about Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany.

Overall, if you want an understanding of totalitarianism, this is the book to read. After finishing it, I read one quote to my wife that really stuck out to me. She quipped, "sounds like Animal Farm. I think writers like Arendt, Orwell, Jacques Ellul and others are vital authors to keep reading. Speaking of Ellul, a lot he said in his book Propaganda came to mind as I read this one. Then I turn on the news Well, we are nowhere near the Totalitarianism these folks lived through and wrote about.

But we're perhaps at least a bit closer to it than we think. In an ever-changing, incomprehensible world the masses had reached the point where they would, at the same time, believe everything and nothing, think that everything was possible and that nothing was true. The mixture in itself was remarkable enough, because it spelled the end of the illusion that gullibility was a weakness of unsuspecting primitive souls and cynicism the vice of superior and refined minds.

Mass propaganda discovered that its audience was ready at all times to believe the worst, no matter how absurd, and did not particularly object to being deceived because it held every statement to be a lie anyhow. The totalitarian mass leaders based their propaganda on the correct psychological assumption that, under such conditions, one could make people believe the most fantastic statements one day, and trust that if the next day they were given irrefutable proof of their falsehood, they would take refuge in cynicism; instead of deserting the leaders who had lied to them, they would protest that they had known all along that the statement was a lie and would admire the leaders for their superior tactical cleverness One day our president says not to worry about, say, Coronavirus and that it will soon go away.

The next day he says its an epidemic and "instead of deserting the leader who lied to them" we still see his supporters touting what a wonderful leader he is. Perhaps, even in America today, the first commandment of the movement is "Trump is always right. Though I'm also not gonna lie. I'm a bit scared for our future. I'm scared that we're forgetting the stories and lessons people like Arendt and others painstakingly preserved for us.

Given the wrong circumstances, we may again run headlong into tyranny or even totalitarianism. Well, back to social distancing I know this book now that I have finally read it to be, sincerely, a monumentally important non-fiction work of the 20th Century. First, her writing style: She came to English late in life.

Her native tongue was German and she learned to write philosophy under the tutelage of Heidegger. Here sentences have the Germanic richness; long, organic, fluid, full, meandering sentences that ca I know this book now that I have finally read it to be, sincerely, a monumentally important non-fiction work of the 20th Century. Here sentences have the Germanic richness; long, organic, fluid, full, meandering sentences that carry the verb at the finish carried in deep-laden paragraphs.

Getting used to her writing style may take American readers--who are used to the Executive Summary mode of quick topic and bullet-points punctuating the message--some getting used to reading. Reading her sentences may give a sore neck in the same way that looking up at the stained-glass windows in a cathedral may.

Next, her message: Originally, she wanted to call her book the Three Pillars of Hell but her publisher attached the current title. The three pillars are Anti-Semitism, Imperialism, and Totalitarianism, and she builds from one section to the other in a foundation-building manner. As powerful as the final Totalitarian section is, however, I highly recommend staying with it from the beginning and reading it through front to back.

Last, I found the final section to be a jaw-dropping educational experience. The chapter with the strongest impact on me was "Totalitarianism in Operation" but the Epilogue chapter, "Ideology and Terror: A New Form of Government" has enormous value today. When the book first appeared in , it became a Cold War manual on dealing with the new Iron Curtain. In the s, readership had shifted largely on statements Arendt had made in lectures and in the press that challenged the status quo of that generation.

By , scholarship has revived around it and it now, for me, it works as a text where the analysis is spot on in distinguishing how Totalitarianism appeared and what its distinguishing characteristics are. I underlined my copy thoroughly and will be referring back to it over and over. Need to bump this up the reading list.

An acquaintance on Facebook believed th Need to bump this up the reading list. The rationale? Feb 07, Terence rated it it was amazing Shelves: politics. This is essential reading for , no question about it. Arendt is sharp, well researched and cutting in her assessment of the links between Antisemitism, Imperialism and Totalitarianism.

This is not just an analyses of the Third Reich but also of the whole system of Russian Totalitarianism. Again just impressive how industry is linked in authoritarian regime, how extermination or prison camps are justified. In another section she mentions how Hitler's talent as a mass orator only made his oppo This is essential reading for , no question about it. In another section she mentions how Hitler's talent as a mass orator only made his opponents underestimate him, and how Stalin defeated a great orator to lead his party.

It draws many things into focus and crafts a dangerous precedent in the era of Bannon and "so-called" president Trump. Aug 01, Jessica Keener rated it it was amazing. This book unequivocally helped me understand how things like genocide can and do happen. One of the most important book of the last century. Readers also enjoyed. About Hannah Arendt. Hannah Arendt. Hannah Arendt — was one of the most influential political philosophers of the twentieth century. Born into a German-Jewish family, she was forced to leave Germany in and lived in Paris for the next eight years, working for a number of Jewish refugee organisations.

In she immigrated to the United States and soon became part of a lively intellectual circle in New York. She held Hannah Arendt — was one of the most influential political philosophers of the twentieth century. She held a number of academic positions at various American universities until her death in She is best known for two works that had a major impact both within and outside the academic community.

The first, The Origins of Totalitarianism , published in , was a study of the Nazi and Stalinist regimes that generated a wide-ranging debate on the nature and historical antecedents of the totalitarian phenomenon. The second, The Human Condition , published in , was an original philosophical study that investigated the fundamental categories of the vita activa labor, work, action. In addition to these two important works, Arendt published a number of influential essays on topics such as the nature of revolution, freedom, authority, tradition and the modern age.

At the time of her death in , she had completed the first two volumes of her last major philosophical work, The Life of the Mind , which examined the three fundamental faculties of the vita contemplativa thinking, willing, judging. Books by Hannah Arendt. Haven't had a chance to pull out that passport in over a year? Yeah, we feel you. Luckily for all of us, these 15 new romances published since Read more According to legend, some people were paid to chase around tumbleweed on windy days.

A struggling shoe salesman named Jack Reagan took a job as a federal relief administrator in Dixon, Illinois. His son, Ronald, later opposed such government intervention as president in the s, but he maintained his appreciation for the WPA. The TVA built a series of hydro dams on the Tennessee River that, aside from employing many people and controlling flooding, brought power to the region, helping it to industrialize and create more jobs map. Still around today, the TVA also damaged the environment and displaced people whose property was flooded.

Yet, the public utility was another positive example of a multiplier effect. Today, much of the American auto industry has migrated from Detroit to the Tennessee Valley because of its cheap electrical rates. One alt-country band, the Drive-By Truckers , has two songs about the TVA, one positive and one critical, symbolizing the conflicted feelings Southerners still feel for the organization.

The TVA led to the Rural Electrification Act that aimed to juice other un-electrified regions and erect telephone lines. Many REA-funded rural electrical co-ops are still in existence today and are adopting wind and solar energy for farmers. In the Northwest, New Dealers built a similar series of hydroelectric dams along the Columbia River , helping to irrigate and power an otherwise arid region in central and eastern Washington and Oregon.

While salmon could climb ladders alongside smaller dams e. Emblematic of the New Deal, the dam was strong on job growth and weak on civil rights and environmentalism. Moreover, seventy workers died being impaled on rebar, drowned in the Columbia, or torn up in conveyor belts.

Today, there are nine more dams on the Columbia and Grand Coulee alone provides enough clean energy to power Seattle. The LCRA was an example of state-sponsored New Deal-type legislation, as opposed to that coming from the national bureaucracy. Austin got a lot of federal dollars, too, as 10th District Congressman Lyndon Johnson steered funds toward municipal projects. Leftists saw Roosevelt as a Wall Street lackey missing an opportunity for a real socialist revolution.

Like any president, Roosevelt had his critics on both sides. If he disliked socialism so much, why did he favor government taking over the banks? Coughlin called on his viewers to form a new Christian Front party to support Nazism before radio stations cancelled him. FDR refused to endorse him and tried to convince him to drop out of the race. When that failed, despite the inconvenience of his paralysis, he boarded a train for the West Coast to campaign on behalf of Republican gubernatorial candidate Frank Merriam.

That act alone says a lot about where FDR actually stood on the political spectrum. Sinclair lost the three-horse race to Merriam and another centrist candidate. FDR disliked the idea, thinking it verged on communism, but it was the basis for the Social Security system that he reluctantly went along with in A key difference is that under Social Security each worker funds the system directly as they go with paycheck deductions.

In Revolutionary America, populist Herman Husband suggested a similar idea, but he was so far ahead of his time that he had no influence on what happened years later,. His Share Our Wealth program diverted oil company profits to building roads, bridges, charity hospitals, and schools in that mostly impoverished state.

Long understood that it all had to do with how you frame your message. He never went so far as to use the words socialism or communism , which would have torpedoed Share Our Wealth in an instant. He simply asked the poor majorities if they thought the time had come to redistribute some oil wealth, couching his policies in Christian themes.

Teamsters Strike, Minneapolis, Those were strong words coming from a guy like FDR. The Von Rosenvelts were old money aristocracy dating back to the original 17th-century Dutch settlers in the Hudson River Valley. The Second New Deal featured more lasting measures than the First, including Social Security, the right to collective bargaining for unions, minimum wage, and federal housing assistance.

On the flipside, Roosevelt won over working-class America, forging the Democrats a solid nationwide coalition. At first, it provided a modest retirement pension and short-term unemployment insurance. Politicians and activists have used Christianity on both sides of nearly every major debate in American history and this was no exception. When the Depression hit, the U. A few states had meager systems and, as we saw above, Dr. Townsend envisioned such a system in California.

Faced with the monumental task of tracking workers, early Social Security denied benefits to itinerant workers, servants, seaman, etc. The only way to avoid that extrapolating current trends, which is never entirely accurate would be for workers to accept a 2. Even the full benefits were originally intended as a supplement rather than something retirees could solely survive on. Moreover, the act was passed when workers retired at 65 and life expectancy was around 67 life expectancy at birth in was 58 for men, 62 for women, SSA.

With people living longer now the eligibility age will have to be raised. A bipartisan act passed in kicked in a gradual increase from age 65 to 67 so that people born after will get full benefits at Otherwise, Americans will pay increasingly more interest on the debt red on the chart below , burdening future generations.

Crow Indians used to encourage but not force their elderly to commit suicide. Happily, Americans on average are living longer. Unhappily, the current entitlement system struggles to keep up with costs at current tax rates, especially on the healthcare portion of Social Security added in America, Western Europe, and Japan have all made bigger commitments to their retirees than they can handle without moderate adjustments, faster-growing young populations, increased immigration, or explosive economic growth.

The default Part A provides hospital insurance while the extra Part B provides general health insurance. With more and better treatments being offered and no price controls on providers hospitals, doctors, pharmaceuticals , costs have far outrun the general inflation rate over the last generation. Inflation will continue to be a problem in healthcare regardless of whether costs are covered by the government, private insurance, or out-of-pocket.

Medic aid , mostly state-funded aid for the poor, faces similar challenges. Under current law, Americans and their employers each contribute up to 7. The chart above shows the breakdown in federal spending as of The red and blue portions represent entitlements, including regular Social Security and Medicare, respectively. Technically, defense is one of twelve departments included under discretionary , though some charts list defense as a separate category.

Discretionary spending is appropriated annually and includes other agencies, foreign aid, PBS-NPR, and research on science, medicine, and weather. I earned it! Do you feel that not entitled to the benefits? Collective bargaining meant that management was legally obligated to sit down and negotiate with unions rather than simply firing, harassing, or in rare cases killing strikers.

A simpler way to understand collective bargaining would be to say that management lost the right to not bargain or negotiate. Blue-collar workers now had negotiating leverage and could make a decent living working in factories and mines, building on improvements in hours, pay, safety, and working conditions that began in the s. CIO leader John L. Lewis convinced U. The Republic strike led to the Memorial Day Massacre of in which Chicago police killed ten unarmed demonstrators and injured dozens of others.

Eventually, though, the right of collective bargaining took effect. Republic Steel workers, for instance, got their first bargained agreement five years after the fracas. The union heyday lasted for fifty years or so before companies started outsourcing work to cheaper labor overseas or automating repetitive work. Good semi-skilled manufacturing jobs are still available for those with a slightly higher level of training than was called for in the s. Supporters wanted to protect the dignity of each worker and make it possible to support families, but critics claimed it raised unemployment because companies could afford fewer workers and laid some off.

Mortgage foreclosures were significant during the Great Depression, with nearly half of mortgage holders in default or late on payments. Note: These rates are difficult to measure precisely today and were even more difficult to assess in the s.

Going into the s, the ratio of renters to owners was The government thought Americans would feel a greater stake in their country and capitalism as owners than renters, so it intervened in the economy to encourage buying.

The New Deal government also refinanced distressed mortgages to tamp down the huge number losing their homes. When Fannie Mae was completely public, from , the U. At the time, qualified borrower meant, among other things, white. Redlined districts with no minority or Jewish homeowners received preferential lower rates while minorities got subprime mortgages higher interest rates , regardless of their credit history.

Few people realize that before the government built housing projects in ghettos in the s, they built a few segregated suburbs in the s. The early FHA essentially enshrined racism and segregation as public policy. In , the racist criteria were dropped, but politicians of both parties continued to support homeownership up through the real estate bubble of the early 21st century. Easy loans encouraged mostly by Democrats looking out for the poor, combined with Wall Street deregulation encouraged by Republicans and Democrats, created a bubble in mortgage-backed securities that exposed the entire economy to systemic risk.

Was the New Deal Constitutional? Popularity and constitutionality are different animals altogether. The New Deal was popular among a critical mass. FDR won four elections, and won by a historic landslide in , just after the more radical Second New Deal kicked in. They even shot down state laws governing wages, working conditions, etc. More so than any era in American history, the people, Congress, and executive branch were at odds with the judicial branch in the s.

He hoped to encourage retirements by restoring the full pension. New Deal opponent Willis Van Devanter retired in , while conservative swing-voter Owen Roberts changed his mind even before the court-packing scheme on some issues. The Court okayed minimum wage, collective bargaining, and Social Security, and reverted to its broad Commerce Clause interpretation.

The Supreme Court mostly backed away from economic cases altogether until the s, allowing New Deal liberalism to flourish for the next half-century and Social Security beyond that. It was a play on an old sewing phrase a stitch in time saves nine , meaning to mend a tear before it gets larger.

Since his court-packing bill died, FDR claimed he lost the battle but won the war, saving the New Deal. But it was a costly, or pyrrhic , victory for Roosevelt, exhausting his political capital. Both the executive and judicial branches seemed to learn a lesson from the controversy. Donald Trump then filled the opening with Neil Gorsuch his first month in office. McConnell realized that the process was, in effect, an honor system and that he could game it once in the short term and get away with: the GOP stole a court appointment in But long-term, unless Democrats all develop simultaneous amnesia, there will be payback of some sort; the question is what.

And combining partisan obstructionism with court-packing would be a dysfunctional circus. Congress can change the number of judges but would need an amendment to enact term-limits, so the wiser of the two reforms faces a higher hurdle. With the economy improving by the time of his reelection, he pulled the plug on most public works projects to balance the budget e.

For supporters of Keynesian economics, the pullback in spending corresponding with the recession proves the value of stimulus spending. In other words, Roosevelt pulled the plug too soon, not keeping the foot on the Keynesian pedal long enough. It was also the first year that payrolls deducted taxes for Social Security, but S.

For conservative supply-siders, the Roosevelt Recession of shows that lack of cash among spenders supply caused by these taxes led to the downturn, with the capital needed for further recovery either taxed away or forced into hiding. FDR, conversely, blamed the recession on the reduction in federal spending and authorized more stimuli.

Complicating matters even more, in the Fed doubled bank reserve requirements funds banks keep as vault cash, or on deposit at the Fed , lowering the cash in circulation even more beyond the tax hike. All we know for certain is that the simultaneous contractionary policies of spending cuts, a tax increase, and tight money put a bump in the road to recovery.

Ideally, countries should run small surpluses in good economic times so that they have room to maneuver during recessions. Animated Graph. The combination of the recession and court-packing scheme hurt Roosevelt. Many Democrats jumped ship and the Republicans swept the midterm elections. Assessment Was the New Deal effective? Yes and no. Herbert Hoover scrambled to find answers but was overwhelmed. But New Dealers at least turned the economic tide through constant tinkering and occasional bold, innovative action.

The New Deal also brought electricity and phones to rural America while displacing some with floods for dam reservoirs. Business leaders value stability almost more than right-wing policy and the New Deal was juggling a lot of balls simultaneously — too many moving parts for reliable short-term planning.

Things gradually improved some after , including the most important metric of hunger. Their work is part of what later won us the temporary right to shortchange infrastructure in a low-tax era. The manufacturing sector did best, with factory work rebounding to levels by , even before the wartime boom. The GDP grew faster from than in any three-year period in American history. Economic historian Burton Folsom claims that he wanted to go even higher, at one point advocating In the s, frustrated investors and corporations were uncertain about future government policy and that may have offset the positive effects of stimulus spending.

Finally, the New Deal deserves some criticism for its agricultural policy. What really pulled the economy out of the doldrums was increased defense spending after , when World War II started in Europe. The weapons mainly went to Britain, though the U. By , the unemployment rate in the U. The federal budget escalated dramatically even as Congress pulled the plug on the CCC and WPA — now truly into the realm of deficit spending, as the government contracted manufacture of the greatest war machine in history: the Arsenal of Democracy.

When the U. Did the New Deal usher in the era of big government? Indirectly, yes. You could think of WWII as Keynesian stimulus on steroids in terms of spending, debt, and job creation. In fact, when the war ended in , the government decided to just keep the country on a fairly high-tax wartime spending spree.

The more lasting question is whether it was right for the government to establish a moderate welfare state that put a safety net under workers, retirees, and the poor. Conservatives accurately see these obligations as a departure from the original, more minimal role of government laid out in the Constitution and moreover argue that they can be counter-productive.

No doubt they sometimes are. Many traditional Democrats, too, were appalled at the transformation. There can only be one atmosphere of government, the clean, pure, fresh air of free America or the foul breath of communistic Russia. But maybe the Roosevelts were right that liberalism saved capitalism from itself. Maybe New Deal-style liberalism stabilized capitalism and made it more appealing overall than communism. Would we still think our system was that great if that happened to most of us periodically?

At this point, Upton Sinclair had to have been asking himself why FDR bothered to campaign against him in If you follow this line of defending liberalism and speed forward to the collapse of Soviet communism in , the West won the Cold War not in spite of its welfare states but partly because of them.

Legacy Even with its mixed record on civil rights, the New Deal helped all workers and consumers enough to attract minorities to the Democratic Party. Blacks left the party of Abraham Lincoln and the Union victors in the Civil War to join the historic party of the Klan and Confederacy. Without African-American voters, Democrats would not have won a single presidential election since The pro-union Democrats also became the default party of most blue-collar workers and farmers from the s through the s.

The New Deal led to bigger government with the establishment of Social Security and its offshoot programs like unemployment insurance and Medicare. This safety net has allowed capitalism and democracy to co-exist in relative harmony since then, as has been the case in other Western democracies, but there will always be tension between capitalism and democracy. Our political spectrum today is determined mainly by disagreements over the extent of the safety net and posts welfare state rather than the existence of core New Deal reforms.

What changed fundamentally in the s is the assumption that government should provide such a safety net. People on both sides of the aisle Republican and Democrat demand subsidies from the government, including those who bark loudest about not liking handouts. Alaskans live a libertarian dream on massive welfare checks.

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