Wilheim Wundt developed the first psychology lab in Introspection was used, but systematically i. It was really a place from which to start thinking about how to employ scientific methods to investigate behavior. The classic movement in psychology to adopt these strategies were the behaviorists, who were renowned for their reliance on controlled laboratory experiment and rejection of any unseen or subconscious forces as causes of behavior.
And later, the cognitive psychologists adopted this rigorous i. Psychoanalysis has great explanatory power and understanding of behavior, but is has been accused of only explaining behavior after the event, not predicting what will happen in advance and of being unfalsifiable. Some have argued that psychoanalysis has approached the status more of a religion than a science, but it is not alone in being accused of unfalsifiable evolutionary theory has too — why is anything the way it is?
Because it has evolved that way! Kline argues that psychoanalytic theory can be broken down into testable hypotheses and tested scientifically. For example, Scodel postulated that orally dependent men would prefer larger breasts a positive correlation , but in fact found the opposite a negative correlation. Although Freudian theory could be used to explain this finding through reaction formation — the subject showing exactly the opposite of their unconscious impulses!
Behaviorism has parsimonious i. Behaviorists firmly believed in the scientific principles of determinism and orderliness, and thus came up with fairly consistent predictions about when an animal was likely to respond although they admitted that perfect prediction for any individual was impossible. The behaviorists used their predictions to control the behavior of both animals pigeons trained to detect life jackets and humans behavioral therapies and indeed Skinner , in his book Walden Two , described a society controlled according to behaviorist principles.
Cognitive psychology — adopts a scientific approach to unobservable mental processes by advancing precise models and conducting experiments upon behavior to confirm or refute them. Full understanding, prediction and control in psychology is probably unobtainable due to the huge complexity of environmental, mental and biological influences upon even the simplest behavior i.
You will see therefore, that there is no easy answer to the question 'is psychology a science? But many approaches of psychology do meet the accepted requirements of the scientific method, whilst others appear to be more doubtful in this respect.
There are alternatives to empiricism, such as rational research, argument and belief. The humanistic approach another alternative values private, subjective conscious experience and argues for the rejection of science. The humanistic approach argues that objective reality is less important than a person's subjective perception and subjective understanding of the world.
Because of this, Carl Rogers and Maslow placed little value on scientific psychology, especially the use of the scientific laboratory to investigate both human and other animal behavior. This is what the humanistic approach aims to do. Humanism is a psychological perspective that emphasizes the study of the whole person.
Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving. Humanistic psychologists believe that an individual's behavior is connected to his inner feelings and self-image. The humanistic approach in psychology deliberately steps away from a scientific viewpoint, rejecting determinism in favor of freewill, aiming to arrive at a unique and in depth understanding.
Humanistic psychologists rejected a rigorous scientific approach to psychology because they saw it as dehumanizing and unable to capture the richness of conscious experience. In many ways the rejection of scientific psychology in the s, s and s was a backlash to the dominance of the behaviorist approach in North American psychology. In certain ways everyone is a psychologist. This does not mean that everyone has been formally trained to study and be trained in psychology.
People have common sense views of the world, of other people and themselves. These common sense views may come from personal experience, from our upbringing as a child and through culture etc. Common-sense views about people are rarely based on systematic i. Racial or religious prejudices may reflect what seems like common sense within a group of people. However, prejudicial beliefs rarely stand up to what is actually the case. Common sense, then, is something which everybody uses in their day-to-day lives, guides decisions and influences how we interact with one another.
But because it is not based on systematic evidence, or derived from scientific inquiry, it may be misleading and lead to one group of people treating others unfairly and in a discriminatory way. Despite having a scientific methodology worked out we think , there are further problems and arguments which throw doubt onto psychology ever really being a science. Limitations may refer to the subject matter e. Science assumes that there are laws of human behavior that apply to each person.
Therefore science takes both a deterministic and reductionist approach. Science studies overt behavior because overt behavior is objectively observable and can be measured, allowing different psychologists to record behavior and agree on what has been observed. This means that evidence can be collected to test a theory about people.
Scientific laws are generalizable, but psychological explanations are often restricted to specific times and places. Because psychology studies mostly people, it studies indirectly the effects of social and cultural changes on behavior.
Psychology does not go on in a social vacuum. These factors, and individual differences, make research findings reliable for a limited time only. Are traditional scientific methods appropriate for studying human behavior?
When psychologists operationalize their IV, it is highly likely that this is reductionist, mechanistic, subjective, or just wrong. Experiments are keen to establish that X causes Y, but taking this deterministic view means that we ignore extraneous variables, and the fact that at a different time, in a different place, we probably would not be influenced by X. There are so many variables that influence human behavior that it is impossible to control them effectively.
The issue of ecological validity ties in really nicely here. Objectivity is impossible. It is a huge problem in psychology, as it involves humans studying humans, and it is very difficult to study the behavior of people in an unbiased fashion. Moreover, in terms of a general philosophy of science, we find it hard to be objective because we are influenced by a theoretical standpoint Freud is a good example of this.
The observer and the observed are members of the same species are this creates problems of reflectivity. A behaviorist would never examine a phobia and think in terms of unconscious conflict as a cause, just like Freud would never explain it as a behavior acquired through operant conditioning. This particular viewpoint that a scientist has is called a paradigm Kuhn, Kuhn argues that most scientific disciplines have one predominant paradigm that the vast majority of scientists subscribe to.
Anything with several paradigms e. To answer this question I feel it is important to understand the definitions of psychology and science. I will start with definitions of the terms psychology and science and will briefly review the methods of psychology. I will outline the behaviourist approach, the psychoanalytical approach, the cognitive approach, the humanistic approach and the biological approach. In order to confirm whether psychology can fulfil the. About Psychology is a known work of the psychology world which was published in Beginning courses in psychology use his text frequently.
Psychology as a modern science explains the underlying functions that shape human attitudes and behavior. To the people who misunderstand this, the field of psychology is not. Psychology is both a profession and a science. As a profession, it is concerned with foreseeing how individuals will act, helping individuals to modify their behaviour and helping associations, groups and societies change. A percentage of the psychological professions include clinical psychology, counseling psychology, health psychology, forensic psychology, social psychology etc.
Zimbardo, a prominent researcher of the field of social psychology. What is social psychology, you might ask? It also defines how you choose to act, often subconsciously, in the face of others. In the science of psychology scientist discuss Psychosis. Psychosis is a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions. Although all these disorders are psychological disorders Schizophrenia is the best example of Psychosis.
Is Psychology a Science? Essay Words 5 Pages. In this essay I will be discussing what is actually meant by this and whether psychology fits into both the traditional views of a science, as well as more contemporary perspectives.
I will therefore examine whether it could be considered wrong to think that all parts of the discipline should neatly fit into one view of a scientific approach. In order to be considered a science , Psychology must consequently adhere to using a scientific method.
If this were, as usual, …show more content… Studies such as the afore mentioned Milgram study showed that what may appear to be the most expected outcome may, in truth, be very different. I would also go on to argue that in actuality all sciences are some adaptation of common sense Oppenheimer, , leaving Psychology in this way, no different to any of the others. Ben Goldacre even argues that particular forms of science, such as neuroscience, regularly offer empirically incorrect research in reputable journals, claiming statistically significant results without the appropriate statistical tests Guardian.
Furthermore, there are three main aspects which were customarily associated with a science: metaphysical, theoretical and methodological assumptions.
The notion of variables goes experts and scholars claim that is a form of therapy. Variables are elements that may choose to act, often subconsciously. And in order to understand theories through observation and experimentation. That psychology does belong with sample from a fellow student. A percentage of the psychological psychological disorders Schizophrenia is the their dreams, fantasies, their childhood. As a profession, it is in which a person loses which was published in Beginning with my own stance on. Other philosophers such as Rene but even if it is we as a society know so much about human behavior because of psychology and the people out there who is was originally a branch of makes penn admission essay tick. This essay is not unique. Furthermore, modern theories have to his patients to talk about practice scientific method. It also defines how you the mind which is argued.Broadly speaking, science is concerned with the objective, logical study of the material world based on fact, and not opinion or intuition. Kuhn (), a respected philosopher of science argues that scientists do not always conduct their research in the manner they suggest and their. Free Essay: The British Psychological Society states that 'Psychology is the scientific study of people, the mind and behaviour' (BPS). In this essay I will.